Sunday, November 3, 2019

The Obedience to Authority Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

The Obedience to Authority - Essay Example In â€Å"The Lottery,† Old Man Warner stresses that the lottery cannot be removed, simply because it has always been done: â€Å"There's always been a lottery† (Jackson). Furthermore, he emphasizes the saying: â€Å"Lottery in June, corn be heavy soon† (Jackson). It does not matter if this ritual results in the suffering of one person since the society focus on its â€Å"positive† outcomes. In "The Ones Who Walked Away from Omelas,† people believe that in order to maintain the joy and wealth of Omelas, they have to preserve a â€Å"child's abominable misery† (LeGuin). Omelas has made it a law to never let the child out because it will result in the loss of â€Å"prosperity and beauty and delight† of Omelas (LeGuin). Some residents feel the injustice of this law, but the majority follows its law nonetheless. Simply obeying authority is a form of cowardice, which results in evil too. Some people in â€Å"The Lottery† consider scrapping this tradition, but they do so in â€Å"suggestive† tones. Mrs. Adams says: â€Å"Some places have already quit lotteries† (Jackson). No one among the people, nevertheless, boldly calls for the eradication of this bloody and senseless ritual. They all participate, even when they feel uncomfortable about it. For instance, the niceties are all forced, such as when Mr. Summers and Mr. Adams â€Å"grinned at one another humorlessly...† (Jackson). There is also cowardice in how people in Omelas uphold a child's misery. They rationalize the co-existence of their happiness and individuals suffering: â€Å"They all know that it has to be there† (LeGuin). They think this way to free themselves from guilt. Rationalization is a coward way out of his/her conscience. People follow authority, even when it results in violence because violence has become too commonplace that no one questions its morality anymore. Children and adults alike  participate in the violence of the lottery, as part of their â€Å"numbing, commonplace everyday activity† (Breakthrough Writer).  

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Primary models of international marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Primary models of international marketing - Essay Example This research is being carried out to evaluate and present the primary models of international marketing. These models include, polycentric, ethnocentric and geocentric. Ethnocentric is normally used to refer to refer to assumptions arising from national arrogance. They are conservative and hold the underlying factor that one method used in marketing and manufacturing is adequate and applicable to all other places. They uphold the view that products emanating from their country are superior by default and automatically get accepted in other regions. They do not consider aspects of modification and are not vigorous in their marketing campaigns. Contrary to ethnocentric approach or model, the polycentric approach dwells on the uniqueness of each region it is unveiling its products in. They put extra caution and consideration in regard to the people’s culture and give its products time to be assimilated into the people’s culture. If necessary, they would consider modifying their products to suit the perspective of their new targets. This approach invents new marketing strategies to capture the attention of new customers. On the negative aspect, modifications to fit into each setting may dilute the originality of the initial product and prove expensive for the company too. Considering the unique needs of individuals, cultures or religions in every region may be exhaustive too. Geocentrism embraces a more global approach to business. It levalises the business grounds to all parties as there is no special attention to the original company or the host.

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Contextualised analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Contextualised analysis - Essay Example The paper concentrates on two pages (page 45 and 204) extract from the book that deals with relationship (sexuality). This double existence was in concurrence with the Victorian era in which the author lived, and also with a viewpoint that pleasures are most enjoyable when they are confidential. No evil is as allusive as the surreptitious sin. There is basis to suppose that Wilde would have retreated at the tendency to put on one’s sexuality within one’s sleeve; instead of making such internal desires the matter of subtle, secretive gratifications. Illusion, as he eminently quoted, is the initial of entire pleasures. Wilde was capable to rationalize his enticements while taking pleasure in the thrill of prohibited fruit but in his spirit, in his innermost conscience, the guilt prowled. Just as homosexuality in Wilde’s merely book, The Picture of Dorian Gray, is noticeable without being unconcealed, many desire their sins could be uncontrolled without being observed. The Picture of Dorian Gray discovers the fantasy of unconquerable vice only to realize that, while law can be avo ided, there is no flee from conscience. Homosexuality is revealed in book in many section, however, this analysis provide an extract of page 204 revealing confession of Hallward for loving Dorian. ‘It is quite true I have worshipped you with far more romance of feeling than a man should ever give to a friend. Somehow I have never loved a woman†¦. From the moment I met you, your personality had the most extraordinary influence over me†¦. I adored you madly, extravagantly, absurdly. I was jealous of everyone to whom you spoke. I wanted to have you all to myself. I was only happy when I was with you’ (204). This was a time of historical transformation in Victorian or modernist period. In the preamble, Wilde also warned readers against seeking connotations â€Å"beneath the surface† of literature or any art. The extract provides a

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Healthcare Professional Understanding and Response to Alarms

Healthcare Professional Understanding and Response to Alarms Obstacles and Solutions for Healthcare Professionals (HP)’s understanding and response to monitor alarms: A literature Review Image(1) Abstract: The alarm systems employed in the intensive care unit (ICU) are vital for patient care and safety. They give readings for heart rate, oximetry and the cut-offs for the alarms are set by the individual or the manufacturer. There have been adverse events associated with alarms systems and recently, it has become a serious health hazard. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature for healthcare professionals’ (HP) understanding and response to monitor alarms in the hospital and any solutions proposed. Mohammad Omar Aziz 112120367 University College Cork 24/11/2014 INTRODUCTION: The alarm systems give readings of many physiological variables including heart rate, respiratory rate, oximetry and the cut-offs for the alarms are set by the individual or the manufacturer(2). These alarms can also be silenced. The machine employed in NICU in CUMH contains a Stop and Pause function(2). The Pause function silences all alarm parameters for 2 minutes, whereas the stop function silences only one particular alarm parameter for 1 minute. There is also a setting known as ‘Extreme alarm’, which alerts the HP when the particular physiological variable has gotten worse (eg oxygen saturation has been gotten less than 80% for neonates in CUMH). The reason for such functions (ie stop and pause) is that an alarm may not be deemed serious by the HP and the HP may decide to ‘wait and see’ if this is just an isolated incident. Also, alarms may not be as serious and the HP may deem it to be a ‘false positive (FP)’. This is because the alarms ar e just one input of information for the HP and he/she takes into account other inputs, such as clinical context(3). Also, the patient population itself in the ICU is to be considered. For example, it is common for neonates to have episodes of tachycardia and as such, isolated incidents would not cause the HP to be worried about patient. Rather, the alarms become worrisome if the variables are not coming back to normal limits (i.e. assessing if the alarms are continuing to sound as opposed to being an isolated incident)(2). The alarms are aimed to have a high specificity so that a true event is not missed. However, this can be burdensome. In a day in the ICU, this could translate to 187 alarms/bed, of which majority are false positive alarms(4). Another study found that for a cardiac surgery, roughly 1 alarm would go off every minute and approximately 80% of the alarms had no practical benefit (i.e. no clinical action could be taken)(5). Alarm systems can lead to adverse events and in 2010, alarm hazards was amongst the top 10 technology health hazards and in 2012, it had surpassed the others to become the leading technology health hazard(6, 7). The potential consequences of adverse events can be fatal as one of the databases for the FDA had reported that in a span of 3 years, from 2005 to 2008, there were 566 deaths related to monitor device alarms(8). In Ireland (NICU in CUMH), a neonate could have been hypoxic after a prolonged period due to misunderstanding of alarms, highlighting the global scale of such a problem(2). OBJECTIVE: This literature review was aimed to see if there are any papers dealing with HP’s understanding and response to monitor alarms in critical care setting and ways in which it is affected. Response and understanding in this paper refers to whether the staff: (i) responded/became aware of the alarm and (ii) carried out the correct response based on the alarm that sounded. These specifically are: Factors affect their response and understanding Effects of in-adequate response and understanding Solution(s) proposed to improve response and understanding Difference in understanding after stratification: between doctors and nurses, between specialties of ICU (e.g. CCU vs NICU) The conclusions drawn from the review will give insight into audits carried out in CUH regarding monitor alarms and solutions to ‘close the audit loop’. It will also allow for comparison of HP’s understanding in CUH to others hospitals. METHODS: Inclusion Criteria: Papers that dealt with the following: HP’s understanding/interaction with monitor alarms Alarms employed in Hospital (as opposed to ambulatory care) The following databases were searched: PubMed, Cochrane Collaboration. Preference was given to most recent articles as well as review articles. Abstracts were reviewed and if they met inclusion criteria, they were read. Filters applied: ‘English’, ‘Full Text available’, ‘Human’ Search terms entered included: ‘Monitor Alarms’, ‘Monitor alarms + Understanding’, ‘Monitor Alarms + Fatigue’, ‘Alarms’. Cochrane database yielded no articles with any of the search terms, except ‘alarms’( which yielded articles, but they had no relevance to topic). RESULTS: Alarm fatigue and its effect on HP’s understanding Alarms, by their nature, are in place to alert the staff that the patient needs attending to and have limits set in place such that a true event is not missed. As a result, they have a tendency to stuffer from a high false positive rate (FP) and thus, poor positive predictive value (PPV)(9). Clinically insignificant and/or FP alarms range from 80-99%(9, 10). Another study done showed the PPV to be as low as 27%(11). This contributes to staff not being aware of the alarms (desensitization), mistrust in the alarms and not responding to them(3, 9). As stated earlier, 566 alarm related deaths were reported to FDA from 2005 to 2008(8). Alarms can be induced by patient motion, which further contributes to false alarms(12). These cases can be avoided by staff silencing the alarms for a set period of time prior to moving the patient(11). Due to the high FP rate of alarms, the more reliable the alarm is (i.e. how well it predicts true alarm), the higher the response will be from staff(9). Also, the factors that determine response can be divided into: intrinsic to the alarm itself and extrinsic. Internal factors are whether alarm continues to sound or it ceases to sound soon (i.e. alarm duration). Also, the more ‘rare’ or unlikely for an alarm to go off, the more it would warrant a response. The limits set by the staff for the alarm may not be appropriate for the given patient resulting in having too many alarms that are not actionable(5). Extrinsic factors to an alarm are: work load, task complexity, patient condition. The higher the workload or task complexity, HP’s have a lower tendency to react to it. The opposite is true for the more severe the patient’s condition is(3, 9). Solutions proposed to improve response and understanding: To reduce the high FP rate, and ultimately, improve alarm response, different solutions have been proposed in the literature. Since alarms often self-correct, by adding a delay time to the alarms before they sound can reduce the number of alarms themselves(11). ‘Smart Alarms’ can be introduced that have algorithms in place that will alert only if it is a true alarm(9). These systems take trends into account as opposed to raw data itself. Increasing the ‘volume’ of alarms higher than environment was recommended (as opposed to having a fixed dB level for an alarm sound)(13). This is supported by the fact that sound may not be heard due to: room doors closed, events such as noise produced by machines that clean the floors(14). It is further supported by the fact that most hospitals have exceeded the noise levels recommended by WHO, and as such, the volume of the alarm should be customized to the environment to ensure it is heard(15). However, other literature f avours different modalities of alarms (i.e. visual or vibrating), since the noise contributes to symptoms in staff such as fatigue and concentration problems(16). Standardization of alarm sounds would decrease the number of alarm sounds the HP’s have to ‘learn’(17). Another solution proposed has been to have a central notification centre as opposed to a staff monitoring patient(s)when their alarms go off, which was reported to be advantageous. Alarm limits should be changed to levels by HP’s taking into account: if the alarm goes off, it will require some sort of clinical action, and the patient’s specific condition(s)(9). This is in contrast to when HP’s do not change limits and keep to default levels set by manufacturer, which are set to different values depending on the country (18). Customizing limits will decrease the alarm load and increase sensitivity to alarms by healthcare staff(18). Ongoing training should be provided to the staff with an aim to have the training environment as closely simulating the real clinical environment as possible(9). Training in the form of showing staff how to troubleshoot alarms should also be implemented. Alarms that have built in ‘intelligent system’ to assist in troubleshooting have shown to be beneficial. In a simulated environment, intelligent alarms helped the anaesthetists solve various breathing circuit faults 62% faster (45 sec to 17 sec)(19). DISCUSSION: Pros and Cons of Literature: There is evidence in the literature on the potential adverse events of alarms and reasons for such events and the severity of this problem. Solutions to improve understanding were also given. There was no study found that dealt with whether staff understood how to operate the alarms properly and to what extent did this problem exist. Information related to the severity of the problem only indicated a problem in understanding and response. However, there was no mention of whether any of the deaths were due to the HP’s not knowing what buttons to press once the alarm came on (eg did they silence the alarm for too long without knowing). This could be a potential barrier in improving understanding since solutions such as ongoing teaching can not be customized effectively. The review of the literature has only taken data from nurses or doctors, but not both. Therefore, comparisons in understanding between doctors and nurses could not be made. Majority of data and studies was done on nurses. However, this is expected since nurses would’ve interacted with the alarms more frequently than doctors since they are more frequently at the bedside of the patient and are the first to react to any alarms of the patient. Also, no studies have been found to compare understanding between HP’s of different specialties. It would be expected that any critical unit, regardless of specialty, would’ve had the same obstacles to monitor alarm understanding since the reasons for alarm fatigue are the same across the specialties. However, knowing of such studies would yield information about which alarm(s) specifically do the staff understand better or worse? Also, there is a possibility that the understanding diminishes when certain machine alarms are simultaneously on (e.g. ventilator machine as well as monitor alarm). As a result, training could be tailored to each specialty and emphasis placed on areas where their understanding is not sufficient. CONCLUSION: The literature review suggests that the level of monitor alarm understanding and response is not sufficient. Also, this problem of monitor alarm response and understanding is serious and not to be taken lightly. In terms of barriers in response and understanding, they include: too many alarms as well as types, low PPV of alarms, inappropriate limits. Also, no studies have been found that stratify this understanding based on staff (ie doctors or nurses) or specialty (e.g. CCU vs NICU). Moreover, the reasons identified for barriers in understanding of alarms did not appear to be different between doctors and nurses. No studies have been found that assess, specifically, whether the HP knew difference in operating the alarm system itself (ie did they press correct button to silence an alarm). The studies looked at whether they reacted to the alarms and if they did, did they carry out the correct response. Solutions proposed include: incorporating delays, having smart alarms, using different modalities for alarms as well as having continuous teaching. HP’s use alarms as one of the inputs in their decision making process. While alarms are there to alert of any physiological variable crossing a limit (in order to not miss a true event), this leads to the PPV being compromised and as such, the confidence and response to such an alarm decreases. Thus, moving forward, it is essential that strategies are aimed to increase the PPV of alarms, decrease the number of alarms themselves, and incorporate continuous teaching to ensure that the input alarms give holds more weight for the HP in the decision making process. Word Count: 1973 (Excluding abstract and methods) REFERENCES: 1.Insights A. [Online]. 2014 [Nov. 21, 2014]. Available from: 2.Aziz MO. Monitor Alarms (CUMH) discussion with Brian (Biomed) and Prof. C. Ryan (Neonatologist). Monitor Alarms in CUMH ed2014. 3.Bitan Y, Meyer J, Shinar D, Zmora E. Nurses’ reactions to alarms in a neonatal intensive care unit. Cogn Tech Work. 2004 2004/11/01;6(4):239-46. English. 4.Drew BJ, Harris P, Zegre-Hemsey JK, Mammone T, Schindler D, Salas-Boni R, et al. Insights into the problem of alarm fatigue with physiologic monitor devices: a comprehensive observational study of consecutive intensive care unit patients. PloS one. 2014;9(10):e110274. PubMed PMID: 25338067. Pubmed Central PMCID: Pmc4206416. Epub 2014/10/23. eng. 5.Schmid F, Goepfert MS, Kuhnt D, Eichhorn V, Diedrichs S, Reichenspurner H, et al. The wolf is crying in the operating room: patient monitor and anesthesia workstation alarming patterns during cardiac surgery. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2011 Jan;112(1):78-83. PubMed PMID: 20966440. Epub 2010/10/23. eng. 6.Institute E. Health Devices: 2010 TOP 10 TECHNOLOGY HAZARDS. US. 7.Institute E. Health Devices: TOP 10 HEALTH TECHNOLOGY HAZARDS FOR 2014. US: ECRI Institute, 2013. 8.(FDA) FaDA. FDA Patient Safety News: Show #106, January 2011: Alarming Monitor Problems. January 2011. Report No. 9.Cvach M. Monitor alarm fatigue: an integrative review. Biomedical instrumentation technology / Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. 2012 Jul-Aug;46(4):268-77. PubMed PMID: 22839984. Epub 2012/07/31. eng. 10.Lawless ST. Crying wolf: false alarms in a pediatric intensive care unit. Critical care medicine. 1994 Jun;22(6):981-5. PubMed PMID: 8205831. Epub 1994/06/01. eng. 11.Gorges M, Markewitz BA, Westenskow DR. Improving alarm performance in the medical intensive care unit using delays and clinical context. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2009 May;108(5):1546-52. PubMed PMID: 19372334. Epub 2009/04/18. eng. 12.Chambrin MC, Ravaux P, Calvelo-Aros D, Jaborska A, Chopin C, Boniface B. Multicentric study of monitoring alarms in the adult intensive care unit (ICU): a descriptive analysis. Intensive care medicine. 1999 Dec;25(12):1360-6. PubMed PMID: 10660842. Epub 2000/02/08. eng. 13.Minoru H, Eiji S, Mototake T, Kenichi K, Hirosuke K, Satoshi W. Characteristics of Auditory Alarms for Medical Equipment and Future Issues. Journal of Clinical Engineering. 2005;30(4):208-. 14.Sobieraj J, Ortega C, West I, Voepel L, Battle S, Robinson D. Audibility of patient clinical alarms to hospital nursing personnel. Military medicine. 2006 Apr;171(4):306-10. PubMed PMID: 16673744. Epub 2006/05/06. eng. 15.McLaren E, Maxwell-Armstrong C. Noise pollution on an acute surgical ward. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 2008 Mar;90(2):136-9. PubMed PMID: 18325214. Pubmed Central PMCID: Pmc2443309. Epub 2008/03/08. eng. 16.Ryherd EE, Waye KP, Ljungkvist L. Characterizing noise and perceived work environment in a neurological intensive care unit. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 2008 Feb;123(2):747-56. PubMed PMID: 18247879. Epub 2008/02/06. eng. 17.Phillips J, Barnsteiner JH. Clinical alarms: improving efficiency and effectiveness. Critical care nursing quarterly. 2005 Oct-Dec;28(4):317-23. PubMed PMID: 16239820. Epub 2005/10/22. eng. 18.Block FE, Jr., Nuutinen L, Ballast B. Optimization of alarms: a study on alarm limits, alarm sounds, and false alarms, intended to reduce annoyance. Journal of clinical monitoring and computing. 1999 Feb;15(2):75-83. PubMed PMID: 12578080. Epub 2003/02/13. eng. 19.Westenskow DR, Orr JA, Simon FH, Bender HJ, Frankenberger H. Intelligent alarms reduce anesthesiologists response time to critical faults. Anesthesiology. 1992 Dec;77(6):1074-9. PubMed PMID: 1466459. Epub 1992/12/01. eng.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Manufacturing in Space :: science space manufacturing

Man's capability to leave the Earth offers many new prospects for the future. Asteroid mining, building launch facilities on the moon, tourism, and space manufacturing are only some of the many opportunities that are being considered. There are many considerations which must be examined . For example, in the case of manufacturing in space, economic factors include : can it be done on Earth ? If so, which offers a most cost effective venue?; environmental factors include both contamination of the plant and whatever pollutants may be generated in the manufacturing process. Let us examine some of the advantages and disadvantages of this enterprise. Advantages Why manufacture in space? Space offers many unique conditions which alter the properties of materials manufactured. The two major conditions are lack of gravity and lack of contamination Microgravity Gravity causes properties familiar to all of us. One of which is the separation of fluids according to density. With the removal of gravity, alloys and mixtures of materials with properties incompatible here on Earth can be made, resulting in alloys or mixtures which have completely different properties than those found on earth. Other processes which benefit from a lack of gravity include welding, crystal growth, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, non linear optic and photonic materials. Contamination: Space is a sterile environment. Sensitive production such as semi conductors and biotech would benefit from not having to use expensive equipment to filter out harmful dust which is so prevalent on the Earth. Disadvantages The major disadvantage to manufacturing in space is cost. Currently all space bound vehicles are government owned. Fee structures for sending materials into space are exorbitant and delivery service is both uncertain and infrequent. It costs approximately $20,000.00 per pound to send materials into space currently. Although NASA's goal is to get the cost down to $100.00 per pound it is not likely that this will happen any time soon. Scheduling also remains a problem. The current shuttle fleet flies about 7 missions per year compared to a goal of once per week.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Human factors in technology Essay

Man is the only being who has utilized technology, to the point that it also caused technology to change rapidly through time. Technology has been one of the most influential concepts in the lives of every human being throughout history. It was so influential that it had become one of the major deciding factors in the direction of history. Technological innovations had evolved from the simple to the very complex. From the simple stone cutting tools that prehistoric man had, to the contemporary blades that virtually do not need any resharpening at all. There had also been evolution from the very crude computing technique such as the finger counting, to the very complex supercomputers. In terms of transportation, from the very simple mode of walking and running, man had innovated transportation technology by inventing and innovating cars, planes, ships, etc. Technology had not only affected transportation and computing, but also the social and psychological scene as well. Companies whose general trade is information and technology are the ones whose organizational structure is very much affected by the technological changes. Most of the companies are either computer manufacturers or technological research companies. Apple Inc. , formerly known as Apple Computer, Inc. is an American-based multinational corporation which has its focus on technical manufacturing and designing of electronics and software programs for variations of consumers all around the world. It headquarters can be found in Cupertino, California (Apple, Inc. , 2007; History of Apple, 2007; Mesa, 1998; Apple. com, 2007). This company basically focuses on the development and support of several electronic gadgets for the market. This same company currently has its eyes focused on the innovation of already existing technologies, as well as the formation of a new breed of technology for the market. Some of its world-famous creations are the iPod, iPhone and the AppleTV. Aside from these electronic equipment and gadgets, the Apple, Inc. is also into the creation of new and better software programs. In the past, it had focused on creating and developing operating systems (OS), and specific application programs. Today, Apple, Inc. is now setting the path before it releases its newest operating system, the Mac OS X â€Å"Leopard†. Apple is very much into expanding its frontiers by exploring new ways of marketing and product presentation (Apple, Inc. , 2007; History of Apple, 2007; Mesa, 1998; Apple. com, 2007). It is now into the trend of having an online store where its products, whether hardware or software, can be bought by just a click of the mouse. The company is well-known for their very user-friendly hardware as well as software. Their iPod series, as well as their iPhone, Macintosh series of personal computers and peripherals, iLife software suite, and the Mac OS are just some of their best-known software and hardware products. Also, the company is a major supplier of prosumer software products for specialized purposes such as the audio and film industry (Apple, Inc. , 2007; History of Apple, 2007; Mesa, 1998; Apple. com, 2007). The mentioned things about Apple, Inc. , set up a background for the contemporary company. Technology has an implicit message, and that is to put everything into a very objective perspective, where everything could and should not be subject to an individual’s / group’s personal judgments or beliefs. By virtue of technology, man was able to do things such as measurement and judgment without having biases. With the use of technology, organizations can track their development without having doubts if the people who assessed them were biased about the evaluation process. But this strength is also its weak point. Being very objective would mean that the assessment would be very strict, and it would be guided by certain sets of quantified measurements such as numbers and / or a set of quantified codes. These standards for judgment and assessment can be used to evaluate employees’ activities, company sales and company economic standing. Having these strict standards would mean an easier, more efficient and more economic way of assessing the company. With these, companies such as the Apple could rely on machines about their company’s survival. Machines, which are products of modern technology, could be programmed to assess particular aspects of the company and suggest possible options about how to make the company even more productive. This may sound farfetched, but it could be a good way of looking at the possibility of how machines could help organizations in optimizing their parts. Business oriented companies such as the Apple is currently facing the possibilities of having less human members, and more help from the technology they are developing. These companies, with the help of modern technology, could be able to assess their employees using certain standards that can be input to a computer for further assessment. This way, there would be less processing time, less need for human HRD team members, less specialists in the field of assessing people, more possible members for the pool of computer and technology specialists (which could also mean more capital would be invested on the specialty of the company), and less expenses on the part of the company. Looking at the advantages posed by this method, it would be good to conclude that this could boost company income, thus uplift the lives of its employees in an economic and political sense. On the other hand, this method could also pose a very detrimental effect to the company as a whole, both in the macro and micro perspectives. One disadvantage of this method would be that without the subjective judgments of humans on human resources, it would be possible to miss important and potentially able applicants. Also, it would be possible that the programmed machines would not be able to look the implicit factors such as family background and the personality types of the applicants. Another is the fact that hardcore statistics, which programmed machines use, does not claim that the results are products of the interplay of all possible factors, instead it can only present results with the extraneous factors (which may possibly matter) omitted. References: Apple. com (2007).Retrieved August 9, 2007 from http://www. asia. apple. com/. Apple, Inc. (2007). Wikipedia: The Fee Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 9, 2007 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Apple_Computer. History of Apple (2007). ). Wikipedia: The Fee Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 9, 2007 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/History_of_Apple_Inc.. Mesa, A. (2007). Apple History Timeline. The Apple Museum. Retrieved August 9, 2007 from http://applemuseum. bott. org/sections/history. html.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Describe the developments in surgery in the 1800s Essay

Briefly describe what problems surgeons faced in the early 19th century? Pain was one of the main problems that faced surgeons in the nineteenth century, because patients were in agony during surgery therefore it was hard for surgeons to operate. Another problem was infection. After operations open wounds were infected as there were no antiseptic to kill or prevent germs, as a result many patients often died of infection. As well as pain and infection, bleeding was a problem for many surgeons. Operations were quick and often resulted in lots of blood being lost due to loss of blood at high quantities many patients died. 1. Explain why Lister’s work was important in the development of surgery Lister was important in the development of surgery during the 1800s because he began to use carbolic acid as a way of curing infection from patients. Often operations left patients with open wounds that attracted germs and caused infection. It was Lister’s discovery of carbolic acid that prevented many deaths, making him an important figure in the development of surgery. Lister was also important because of his use of carbolic spray, so before operations the room and environment were freed of germs and surgeons also washed their hands with carbolic – this began aseptic surgery meaning people were not going to get an infection from the operations as the operating theatre was clear of germs. Lister’s keen interest in medicine allowed him to understand and know about Pasteur’s germ theory and therefore he could develop his own ideas. After anaesthetics and before antiseptics the black period of surgery came as surgeons performed more intense and in depth surgery; however, they were unaware of how to disinfect or stop infections form emerging. More people died of during the black period of surgery; therefore, Lister’s discoveries of antiseptics prevented infections so it was no longer a problem. Complex surgery could be carried out without the risk of infections therefore surgery developed and there was a lower death rate. 1. ‘After the work of Simpson and Lister there was little left to do in the development of surgery. ’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. Lister and Simpson made many discoveries that helped surgery, after anaesthetics and antiseptics there was little left to do to help surgery. The three main problems were pain, infection and bleeding, with only bleeding remaining a problem after Simpson and Lister. Anaesthetics such as chloroform (discovered by Simpson) helped to prevent pain within patients therefore more complex operations occurred, also Lister discovered carbolic acid and spray so more complex surgery could be carried out without a risk of infection. Although Simpson’s discovery helped surgery improve, it was Lister’s carbolic acid and spray that reduced death rates. However, together anaesthetics and aseptic improved surgery massively. But bleeding was still a big remaining problem and many patients died of blood loss at high quantities. Neither Simpson nor Lister helped with the progression of blood transfusions or storing blood for future use – it was scientists other than Lister and Simpson that discovered ways to store blood and make blood transfusion possible. After the nineteenth century there was still developments in surgery being made as plastic surgery and radio therapy further enhanced the effects of surgery and made improvements even after pain, infection and bleeding were no longer the main problems. Although Simpson and Lister made major improvements in the development of surgery, there was still other major problems that were unsolved after Simpson and Lister, therefore the statement above is not completely true as developments were made and are still being made to make surgery more efficient and effective. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE History Projects section.